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Basque Country, Spain.
The system consists of two parallel pipelines of 3” Sch10 that run from the base to the top of the Fumes Tower, whose expansion (70mm) generates a leakage problem in the flanged joints.
Expansion loops were installed to reduce axial loads. Methodology consisted in mechanical calculations of the pipelines using CAESAR II, verifying expansion loops, defining restrictions and obtaining axial stresses.